State of the Art in Research on Medical Countermeasures Against Biological Agents (Etat de la recherch sur les contre-mesures medicales de lutte contre les agents biologiques)
North Atlantic Treaty Organization Neuilly-sur-Seine Cedex France
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The threat of biological agents used against NATO forces andor the potential for exposure to emergingand re-emerging infectious diseases among deployed forces remains a critical concern of all military Commanders. Preparedness against these disease causing agents requires a full-spectrum understanding of their mechanisms of action, rapid diagnosis of exposure and infection, and how to most effectively counter their effects either pre- or post-exposure. Many biological agents Biological Select Agents and Toxins BSAT as listed on the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC Category A, B, and C lists are still without licensedapproved vaccines and most do not have effective therapies to intervene in the pathogenesis of those diseases. Many of these diseases have a very low incidence of natural occurrence and are of little concern to the civilian research, development, and medical care communities. Even where these diseases are being examined within the civilian and academic communities, their diagnosis and treatment is addressed from a hospital perspective. While pre-exposure immunization remains the most effective prevention measure, recent history has demonstrated the difficulty in developing and obtaining regulatory approval of vaccines. In the absence of active immunization, rapid diagnosis of exposure andor recognition of clinical manifestation of disease is the essential first step towards effective treatment. Addressing all of these factors pre-deployment and in a forward deployed setting is critical to sustained military operations.
- Chemical, Biological and Radiological Warfare
- Military Forces and Organizations