Countering Gray-Zone Hybrid Threats: An Analysis of Russias "New Generation Warfare" and Implications for the US Army
US Military Academy -Modern War institute West Point United States
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The gray zone is an operating environment in which aggressors use ambiguity and leverage nonattribution to achieve strategic objectives while limiting counter-actions by other nation states. Inside the gray zone, aggressors use hybrid tactics to achieve their strategic objectives. While hybrid threats have historically been associated with irregular and conventional warfare, their use in the gray zone leads to a dichotomy between two types of hybrid threats that can mainly be attributed to the need for ambiguity and non-attribution in the gray zone. The two types of hybrid threats are open-warfare hybrid threats and gray-zone hybrid threats. A case in point is Russias military actions in eastern Ukraine, part of what the Kremlin calls its New Generation Warfare. In this MWI report, Captain John Chambers draws on this case study to recommend ways the US Army can improve its capacity to counter ongoing as well as future gray-zone hybrid threats.