Sensing of DNA by Graphene-on-Silicon FET Structures at DC and 101 GHz
Marshall University Research Corporation Huntington United States
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A graphenesilicon field-effect transistor GFET structure is demonstrated as a detector of single-stranded 13-mer DNA simultaneously at DC and 101 GHz at three different molarities 0.01, 1.0 and 100 nM. The mechanism for detection at DC is the DNA-induced change in lateral sheet conductance, whereas at 101 GHz it is the change in RF sheet conductance and the resulting effect on the perpendicular beam transmittance through the GFET acting as an optical etalon. For example, after application and drying of the DNA on a GFET film biased to a DC sheet conductance of 2.22 mS, the 1.0 nM solution is found to reduce this by 1.24 mS with a post-detection signal-to-noise ratio of 43 dB, and to increase the transmitted 101-GHz signal from 0.828 to 0.907 mV arbitrary units with a post-detectionsignal-to-noise ratio of 36 dB. The increase in transmittance is consistent with a drop of the 101-GHz sheet conductance, but not as much drop as the DC value. Excellent sensitivity is also achieved with the 0.01-nm solution, yielding a DC SNR of 41 dB and a 101-GHz SNR of 23 dB.