Developments in the Material Fabrication and Performance of LiMn2O4 dCld Cathode Material
U.S. Army Communications, Electronics, Research, Development and Engineering Center Aberdeen Proving Ground United States
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Lithium manganese oxide spinel materials exhibit promising electrochemical performance and good thermodynamic and kinetic stability when used as a cathode in lithium and lithium-ion electrochemical systems. An inherent disadvantage is their limited cyclability as a result of the energy barriers for removing lithium from the octahedral sites. This work incorporates chlorine into the lattice of the AB2O4 to help assist in lithium deinsertion from the octahedral sites. By introducing this chlorine into the starting material and the subsequent final product, the overall electrochemical performance is enhanced, which will be extremely useful in versatile applications. AB2O4-dCld materials were synthesized using both a solid state reaction method and a common ceramic glycine nitrate combustion process and were evaluated as a cathode for lithium and lithium-ion electrochemical systems. The data presented in this paper is the result of continuing fabrication efforts that allow for an even distribution of chlorine in the AB2O4-dCld material lattice. The material properties were verified using X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence to determine the extent of chlorination into the lithium manganese spinel mixture. Electrochemical coin cells were fabricated and cycled between 4.75 V and 3.5 V at 1-2 mAcm2 to determine cycle life capability and degradation processes.