International cooperation in defense acquisition programs is an important but complex undertaking. Done well, international cooperation can help spread the cost and risk of developing complex defense systems across several nations it can allow access to the best technology worldwide it can ensure interoperability between allied and coalition warfighters and it can improve understanding and strengthen ties with U.S. allies. International cooperation, however, requires training in order to navigate a complicated and often confusing web of legal and regulatory requirements and processes. Transfer of defense technology between international partners invokes arms and technology transfers subject to export control laws, and they often require permission from the U.S. State Department. Sharing dual-use technologies can involve obtaining Department of Commerce approval. Even technical discussions among allies must be covered by appropriate legally binding agreements or other authorizations.