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Lithium-Ion Battery Failure: Effects of State of Charge and Packing Configuration

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Technical Report,01 Jan 2014,01 Jan 2016

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Naval Research Lababoratory Washington United States

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Lithium-ion battery safety remains a significant concern, as battery failure leads to ejection of hazardous materials and rapid heat release that can potentially cause propagation from cell to cell resulting in a total catastrophic failure event. Development of effective mitigation strategies necessitates the controlled study of battery failure events to build a database and improve understanding of important characteristics relating to safety, such as heat release, hazardous materials ejection, and thermal propagation. The U.S. Naval Research Laboratory NRL has been conducting a myriad of these battery failure experiments for several years, investigating a variety of different battery chemistries, geometries, abuse scenarios,and analysis techniques. In this report, different states of charge and packing configurations of a commercially available 18650 lithium-ion battery are studied to determine their impact on heat propagation, internal battery temperatures, radial temperature distributions, and failure characteristics. Internal temperatures were obtained by designing and fabricating 18650 surrogate cells with embedded thermocouples which contained no active materials and were reused for multiple failure tests.

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