Theory of a Nearly Two-Dimensional Dipolar Bose Gas
NAVAL ACADEMY ANNAPOLIS MD ANNAPOLIS United States
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This project develops a theoretical model for gases of bosonic atoms at ultracold, but finite temperatures. Under these circumstances, the gas can undergo a phase transition to a purely quantum mechanical state, a Bose-Einstein condensate BEC, where the atoms cease to behave like distinguishable entities, and instead form a single macroscopic matter wave. At exactly zero temperature, all of the atoms occupy the BEC at finite temperatures, a significant fraction of the atoms leave the BEC and form a thermal cloud. Thus, the state of a low, but finite-temperature gas of bosonic atoms involves the coexistence of a BEC and a thermal cloud. Further, the atoms can interact in a variety of different ways, which have important consequences for the state of the gas. We consider both short range contact interactions and dipolar interactions, where the atoms interact via the long-range, anisotropic dipole-dipole force. We develop this model in both three- and two-dimensional geometries.