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Brief Mindfulness Meditation Training in Smokers
Uniformed Services University Of The Health Sciences Bethesda United States
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Tobacco use remains the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. Despite the availability of efficacious pharmacological and behavioral treatments, 85 of quit attempts end in failure. Mindfulness meditation training may be useful in smoking cessation. This study was a parallel group randomized controlled trial of a brief mindfulness meditation Brief-MM intervention delivered to smokers on a Personal Digital Assistant PDA in the field. Adult community smokers N 44 were randomly assigned to a Brief-MM n 24 or Control sham meditation training n 20 group. All participants carried a PDA for two weeks and were instructed to initiate 20 minutes of meditation or control training on the PDA once per day and to complete an assessment of cognitive and affective processes immediately afterwards. Additionally, they were prompted to complete assessments at random times up to four times per day. Smokers were instructed to smoke as much or as little as they liked during the study. Thirty-two participants Brief-MM 18 Control 14 completed the study 37 participants provided at least one EMA data point and completed in total 1874 assessments. Brief-MM was determined to be feasible and acceptable with 82.87 95 CI 71.19, 94.55 adherence to home meditation practice. Linear mixed model LMM analyses revealed that Brief-MM increased state, but not trait, mindfulness over time. LMMs also indicated that Brief-MM reduced cigarettes smoked per day over time more than the Control group Group xDay interaction, F 1, 436 6.02, PE -0.30, SE 0.12, p .01 reduced craving post-meditation, Group x Assessment Type interaction F 2, 1728 5.78, PE 0.80, SE 0.26, p .003 and reduced negative affect F 1, 1728 15.7, PE -2.93, SE 0.74, p .001. Hypothesized changes to positive affect, a decentered perspective, and attentional bias were not supported.
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