High Intensity Focused Ultrasound: A Novel Model of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury
Uniformed Services University Of The Health Sciences Bethesda United States
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Animal models of traumatic brain injury TBI are needed to ethically and experimentally characterize the effects of TBI on Warriors. Numerous techniques have been developed to model TBI, but each animal model of TBI has limitations regarding the induction of the TBI. Non-invasive injuries such as blast overpressure result in diffuse injuries, while invasive injuries such as closed cortical injury result in localized injury. High Intensity Focused Ultrasound HIFU has been proposed as a non-invasive model to induce localized, neural-specific mild TBI mTBI that could lead to a better understanding of the impact of mTBI on specific brain regions. Two experiments were conducted to characterize the neurobehavioral effects of HIFU model of mTBI in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. The first experiment was a 2 no injury, injury x 2 male, female full factorial mixed design N20. The results of this study revealed a between-subjects interaction of sex x injury F1, 16 4.539, p .049 for Vertical Activity, suggesting greater depression-related behavior for HIFU-exposed females compared with the other conditions. The second study was a 3 control, sham control, injury x 2 male, female full factorial mixed design N64. This study sought to replicate and extend the findings of the previous study by introducing a sham control that would help to distinguish HIFU effects from the HIFU injury preparation and anesthesia. Results show trends towards significant differences for HIFU injury animals compared with both control and sham control for neurobehavioral performance and locomotor activity. These findings suggest HIFU may affect behavior in rats, but the model of TBI is not as robust as other animal models.