Models of Hemodynamics and Hematopoiesis Following Hemorrhage for Use in Combined Injury Simulations
Applied Research Associates, Inc. Arlington United States
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This report describes inclusion of the effects of hemorrhage in previously developed models that simulate hemodynamics and hematopoiesis in humans. In each of these systems, hemorrhage induces loss of a component in circulation. In the granulopoiesis model, there is an additional response of demargination, which releases a subset of granulocytes in the blood vessels into circulation, causing an upsurge of granulocytes in blood plasma. Each hematopoietic model has been developed to simulate humans and mice, and the models have been compared to the available data. The fluid dynamics and thrombopoiesis models have been validated against existing data, whereas there is no available data to validate the human granulopoiesis model. Simulations of the murine hematopoietic models verify that the models compare well to combined radiation and hemorrhage data. These models will aid in the prediction of 48-hour and 60-day lethality of combined injury resulting from a nuclear detonation and will assist in medical planning.