Transport and Reactivity of Decontaminants to Provide Hazard Mitigation of Chemical Warfare Agents from Materials
Technical Report,01 Mar 2010,31 Dec 2013
ARMY EDGEWOOD CHEMICAL BIOLOGICAL CENTER ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND United States
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Decontamination of materials involves the physical and chemical interactions among several components including the agent, material, and decontaminant. The two-way interactions of each component agent-material, agent-decontaminant, and decontaminant-material contribute to the decontaminant performance and the resulting post-decontamination hazards associated with the material. Decontamination involves coupled transport and reaction mechanisms. Mass transfer processes limit the accessibility of the agent to the decontaminant and significantly influence performance. Three modes of action contribute to the decontamination of a material chemical reactivity, agent extraction, and decontaminant penetration. Each mode contributes to the rate and extent of agent removal. A novel approach was developed to integrate liquid-phase reactor data and material testing to identify the modes of action that may occur for specific agent-material-decontaminant combinations. This approach illustrates that chemical reactivity does not necessarily correlate with agent removal from materials and indicates potential directions for future decontamination formulation approaches.