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Antibody Treatment of Ebola and Sudan Virus Infection via a Uniquely Exposed Epitope within the Glycoprotein Receptor Binding Site

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Journal Article

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USAMRIID Frederick United States

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The conserved receptor binding site RBS of filovirus glycoproteins represents a potential target for cross-neutralizing antibodies. However, access to the RBS is largely occluded on the surface of ebolaviruses. Here we report a monoclonal antibody FVM04 reactive to a uniquely exposed epitope within the RBS. FVM04 blocks glycoprotein interaction with the endosomal receptor NPC-1, cross neutralizes Ebola EBOV, Sudan SUDV, and Bundibugyo viruses, and protects mice and guinea pigs against EBOV and SUDV infections. The antibody cocktail ZMappTM is remarkably effective against EBOV Zaire but lacks cross-reactivity to other ebolaviruses. Replacing one of the ZMappTM components by FVM04 retained the anti-EBOV efficacy while extending the breadth of protection to SUDV. Furthermore, we report that exposure of several cross-reactive epitopes can be modulated by specific point mutations within the base of the ebolavirus glycoprotein. These findings have major implications for both development of pan-ebolavirus vaccines and defining broadly protective antibody cocktails.

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