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From Rowing Between Two Reefs to Sailing in Two Oceans: The End of "A Thousand Friends, Zero Enemies

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Technical Report

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Naval Postgraduate School Monterey United States

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Under the presidency of Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono SBY, Indonesia made positive strides in improving its international image, and the countrys global stature is on the ascent. These outcomes were largely attributed to SBYs internationalist foreign policy, which adopted a principle of a thousand friends, zero enemies and preferred a multilateral approach to problem solving. Despite the successes gained from SBYs all directions foreign policy, Indonesias foreign policy has turned nationalistic under Jokowi. In comparison with SBYs preference for cooperation and conflict avoidance, Jokowis foreign policy decisions have shown a willingness to take unilateral actions and to be less conciliatory toward other countries. What set of factors informed Indonesias foreign policy during SBYs drive for multilateralism and cooperation among countries and how much of the nationalist turn in Indonesias foreign policy under Jokowi can be explained by changes in these factors This thesis examines three domestic factors that have shaped Indonesias foreign policy under both presidents the state of Indonesias economy, public opinion during each presidents administration, and the strength of the presidents political coalition. This thesis argues that changes in these three domestic factors took place during the period of transition between the two presidents, and Jokowis interpretation of and response to the changes, subjected to the constraints imposed on a democratic system, caused the nationalist turn in Indonesias foreign policy.

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