Accession Number:



Intraosseous Hydroxocobalamin versus Intravenous Hydroxocobalamin Compared to Intraosseous Whole Blood or No Treatment for Hemorrhagic Shock in a Swine Model

Descriptive Note:

[Technical Report, Final Report]

Corporate Author:

59th Medical Operations Squadron

Report Date:


Pagination or Media Count:



Objective Determine if intraosseous IO hydroxocobalamin HOC can improve systolic blood pressure SBP after severe hemorrhagic shock. Method 36 swine 45-55kg anesthetized, intubated with continuous monitoring. Controlled hemorrhage of 30 of blood volume over 20 min. Randomized to receive 500mL IO blood, 150mgkg IO or intravenous IV HOC in 180mL saline or no treatment. Monitored for 60 min post treatment. Sample size of 8 animals per group. Results RMANOVA outcome analysis detected a significant difference between groupsp0.05. IO whole blood, IO HOC, and IV HOC were similar to each other but significantly different compared to controls regarding SBP, MAP, SVR and heart rate. Differences in SBP and MAP were sustained throughout the experiment. Conclusion IO HOC improved SBP and MAP compared to no treatment and was similar to IO whole blood and IV HOC in this animal model of severe hemorrhage. Moreover, whereas serum lactate was improving in all treated groups, in was deteriorating in the control group.


Subject Categories:

  • Medicine and Medical Research

Distribution Statement:

[A, Approved For Public Release]