Our team completed the study and the PI publishedsubmitted 8 manuscripts and 4 abstracts during the period of performance. Our final paper of 33 service members demonstrated that the MAR of trauma-induced HO was approximately 1.7 mday at the time of surgical intervention, a value I .7x higher than non-pathological human bone. The MAR and post-operative alkaline phosphatase AP values and AP pre-operative levels and the percent of osteoblastic activity were positively related and statistically significant p0.509, p0.026, n J 9 andp0.522, p 0.004, n29 respectively. When data was analyzed only with in a two-year period from injury to excision thereby removing outliers that were significantly longer than counterparts and traumatic brain injury and non-steroidal anti inflammatory drugs were controlled for in the statistical analysis known correlates with HO development, MAR and recurrence severity were significantly relatedp-0.572, p0.041 , n J t . Data from this grant showed a link between bench top research and bedside care, and demonstrates that the MAR is elevated in HO and correlated with recurrence risk however, a larger sample size and more clinical factors are needed to refine this model. A follow-up HO grant awarded using this data as a benchmark for developing a translatable animal model CDMRP-MRMC.