How does the U.S. Army implement new technologies into the military establishment given increasingly scarce resources and parochial views The development of airpower during the interwar period provides a good example of how to meet the challenges of organizational leadership in guiding innovation on a large scale. During this period, early airpower leaders faced one of the greatest challenges to innovation in American history, that of implementing the new technology of aviation. This paper surveys General of the Air Force Henry H. Hap Arnolds example of organizational leadership of innovation during a time of extreme transformation similar to the period the Army is about to enter. This study assesses Arnolds approach to airpower innovation using current doctrine and academic leadership models. The monograph begins by contrasting Colonel Billy Mitchells failed approach to Army airpower innovation with the relative success of Admiral William Moffetts approach in the Navy. The study then assesses Arnolds approach, highlighting successes, and extracting lessons that future leaders may apply to innovation.