In the first year of this proposal we have completed the human subjects authorization steps for both local UCSF and at the DOD human protection reviews and approvals. We have also implemented the Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation system for measuring central conduction times between brain and spinal cord and between spinal cord and muscles. The second stage of the project has begun for optimization of motor imaging protocol. Our initial work on test retest reliability has commenced and we have improved and optimized our spinal cord imaging as well as in partial development of fiber tracking techniques for segmentation of motor pathways in the brain, brainstem, and spinal cord. We have also acquired 7T MR spectroscopic imaging data for optimization and this data is currently being processed and evaluated. This work when completed will encompass the Aim 1 of the proposal. In aim 2, we propose to begin studies with the optimized protocol in MS patients. Our project timeline is between approximately 6 to 8 months delayed from the original SOW primarily due to delays in human subject authorization steps.