Testing of the KRIA Ionizing Water Treatment System for Waters Contaminated with Diesel, PCBs, and Nutrients (Nitrogen Forms)
U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center Vicksburg United States
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This project evaluated the KRIA water treatment system also know under the trade name ECOSOAR for treatment of three environmental contaminants diesel fuel, PCBs arochlor 1254 and nutrients nitrogen forms. The KRIA water treatment system works by charging water with the superoxide radical O2-, which is electrochemically generated from oxygen in the atmosphere. At the injection site, both cavitation and microbubble reactions may also occur. A review of the literature indicates that superoxide is a relatively weak radical, but it can work both oxidatively and reductively. A review of the literature also showed that superoxide can transform chlorinated solvents and microcystin a toxin associated with algae. Studies of the KRIA yielded promising results, but most of these studies lacked sufficient control to isolate variables, possibly casting doubt on the exact nature of the mechanism. Background studies were conducted to evaluate the KRIAs effect on water. The KRIA charged water for 135 minutes and was compared to a control in which the superoxide valve was turned off. It was found that the superoxide charging resulted in elevated approximately threefold levels of oxygen, which led to the water being supersaturated by approximately 300. Conductivity was also increased, presumably due to the addition of charged oxygen species into the water. These elevated levels persisted for at least 24 hours after the charging, suggesting that the effect was persistent. The team also documented elevated concentrations of superoxide ion after charging. Treatment of diesel resulted in a 58 increase in removal compared to the control reactor, and this was statistically significant. Treatment of PCBs resulted in a 20 increase in removal as compared to the control, and was also statistically significant. Treatment of nutrients ammonia and nitrate did not appear to result in any changes to their respective concentrations.