Determination of Winds and Other Atmospheric Parameters by Satellite Techniques. Volume 3: Techniques for Determining Winds and Other Atmospheric Parameters
INSTITUTE FOR DEFENSE ANALYSES ALEXANDRIA VA SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY DIV
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Techniques which have potential use for explicit determination of atmospheric parameters by observations from satellites are evaluated for inherent accuracy of measurement. The discussion describes the instrumental techniques for measuring densities of air and its constituents by atmospheric emission, atmospheric absorption of solar radiation, deceleration of low altitude satellites, occultation satellite-to-satellite microwave transmissions, backscatter by dust of pulsed laser signals and wind by the motion of clouds determined by time-sequenced pictures from satellites and the displacement of balloons tracked in position by satellites. The principle of operation, uncertainty of measurement, coverage in volume, and status of development of each of the techniques considered are detailed. In addition to the methods for explicit measurement of atmospheric parameters, and implicit method of determining winds at all altitudes by machine computation of the equations of continuity of momentum, mass and energy, using satellite derived inputs of densities, temperature and heating, is suggested. Experience in application of the method for purposes of numerical prediction of weather for more than a day ahead is described. Special problems in extrapolating the experience in tropospheric simulation for the determination of winds of the upper atmosphere, for which input data are potentially available by measurements from satellites, are named.
- Unmanned Spacecraft