Influence of Number and Spacing of Sensors on the Effectiveness of Seismic Arrays
Seismic data lab rept.
TELEDYNE INDUSTRIES INC ALEXANDRIA VA EARTH SCIENCES DIV
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Ideally, geophones would be placed in a noiseless environment, in which case there would be no reason to resort to arrays of geophones. If the noise is such that an array is required, the objective of the array is to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio and thus to maximize the intelligence that can be derived from a given signal. The design of the array will be a function of the signal characteristics of the direction and velocity of the noise in the bandpass of the signal, and of the site geology. It has been demonstrated that in a practical sense the optimum array processing is represented by precise beam forming by which we mean simple delay and summing. Increasing the number N of sensors within a given area decreases the inter-element spacing and may increase the coherency between noise samples at adjacent sensors, thus yielding poorer results. Although the data on which our conclusions are reached were drawn from earthquake seismology, the principles involved are equally applicable to exploration seismology and to other geophysical measurements in which arrays of sensors are required.
- Seismic Detection and Detectors