Modelling, Characterization and Measurement of Oscillator Frequency Instability.
TRW SYSTEMS GROUP REDONDO BEACH CALIF
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A mathematical characterization of oscillator amplitude, frequency and phase instability is given here in terms of the respective structure functions of amplitude, frequency and phase. Two classes of oscillator frequency processes are exploited, viz., those which are stationary and those possessing stationary increments. Numerous examples are given which can be used to characterize and model oscillator frequency spectra, hence frequency instability, observed in quartz crystal oscillators, injection-locked Gunn oscillators, rubidium and cesium frequency standards, multiplier chains and mixers used in the implementation of coherent communication receivers and transponders. Their affects on the phase error of a phase-locked loop are explored.
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