Studies of the Army Aviation (V/STOL) Environment. Report No. 9. Classification and World Distribution of Vegetation Relative to V/STOL Aircraft Operations.
Special rept. (Final),
ARMY ENGINEER TOPOGRAPHIC LABS FORT BELVOIR VA
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The ability of VSTOL aircraft to land on or take off from unprepared sites is greatly affected by the vegetation of a locality. Dense forests normal landings impossible, but they can provide a cushion in the event of a crash landing. Sites with fewer trees may be used for landings and takeoffs but may offer hazards from deadfall, protruding trees, fire, or airborne litter. Other vegetation types involve few direct hazards to aviation but may conceal bodies of water, present seasonal fire hazards, or have specialized growth forms such as cacti that impede landings. Considered from the point of view of effects on the operation of VSTOL aircraft, vegetation can be classified into nine formation-classes closed forest, open forest and woodland, savanna, treeless grassland, closed shrubs, sparse woodland and scrub, vegetation sparse to absent without trees, aquatic vegetation, and cultivated vegetation with short planting cycles. Modified author abstract