Safe Distances from Underwater Explosions for Mammals and Birds
LOVELACE FOUNDATION FOR MEDICAL EDUCATION AND RESEARCH ALBUQUERQUE NM
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Tests were run to determine the far-field underwater blast effects on mammals and birds. The tests were conducted in a specially constructed test pond facility, 220 by 150 feet at the surface and 30 feet deep over the 30- by 100- foot center portion. Explosive charges weighing up to 8 pounds were detonated at ten-foot depths. Sheep, dogs, and monkeys were suspended in the water, mostly with their long axis perpendicular to the surface at 1-, 2-, and 10-foot depths. The duck was selected as a model to represent birds on the surface and birds that dive beneath the surface. Ducks were tested on the water surface and at 2- foot depths. The nature of the immersion-blast injuries was described and related to the impulse measured in the underwater blast wave. Impulse levels which were safe and which produce injuries in mammals and birds were presented. Underwater-blast criteria were presented which corresponded to safe and damaging impulse levels for birds and mammals along with curves relating the impulse criteria as a function of range and charge weight.
- Stress Physiology