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Passive-Active Defense Studies for the Detroit Metropolitan Area.
OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LAB TENN
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Potential blast shelter sites by on-site inspection were evaluated for their effectiveness against a threat with a short warning time, such as a submarine launched ballistic missile SLBM threat. It was found that, even under the best conditions for movement of population to shelter, the shelters were spaced too far apart to be effective against such a threat. Furthermore, sufficient anti-ballistic missiles ABM to hold off the attack long enough for people to get into these shelters would require a budget in excess of 3 billion for Detroit alone. Shelters constructed by blast-slanting techniques and averaging about 200-person capacity were found to minimize fatalities against a variety of attacks. A combination of ABM and 200-person shelters generally provides better protection than either shelters or ABM alone. Curves of cost-per-life saved vs. mid-lethal overpressure MLOP showed minima ranging from 25 to 40 psi MLOP. Approximately 36,000 shelters of 200-person capacity would be required for the 1980 Detroit standard metropolitan statistical area SMSA population, with an average spacing between shelters inversely proportional to the square root of the local population density. Author
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