The Sound Velocity Structure of the North Indian Ocean
NAVAL OCEANOGRAPHIC OFFICE WASHINGTON DC
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All available sound velocity data in the North Indian Ocean north of 10 degrees S latitude were analyzed in terms of annual areal extent and depth of perturbations above deep axial depth, annual average depth and velocity of the deep sound channel and critical depth for the northeast and southwest monsoons. The vertical extent of these and other sound velocity features is shown on six north-south and six east-west cross-sections that extend to a maximum depth of 5000 meters. These analyses indicate that highly saline Red Sea Intermediate Water RSIW is the major factor controlling sound velocity structures in the North Indian Ocean. Mixing of RSIW with low salinity water masses causes either sporadic perturbations or an essentially isovelocity layer above deep axial depth. In relatively high concentrations, RSIW causes an anomalously deep greater than 1700 meters and narrow sound channel with velocities greater than 1493 meterssecond Gulf of Aden, Arabian Sea, and Arabian Basin.
- Physical and Dynamic Oceanography
- Acoustic Detection and Detectors