Bioluminescence of the Sea
NAVAL INTELLIGENCE SUPPORT CENTER WASHINGTON DC TRANSLATION DIV
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Luminescence in marine organisms can be an extracellular or intracellular process. Extracellular luminescence is characterized by the release of a luminous secretion produced by specialized glands unicellular or multicellular. Extracellular luminescence has been detected in the polychaetes, Crustacea, Gastropoda, Hemichorda. Fish having extracellular luminescence are also known, for example Searsia koefoedi, S. schnakenbecki. Most luminescent organisms have intracellular luminescence. The simplest example of intracellular luminescence is that of unicellular animals Flagellata which is not accompanied by any discharge of secretion. In the case of this kind of luminescence in Metazoa, the light comes from special photogenic cells called photophores. Luminescent fish and Crustacea are known whose photophores can rotate. Photophores are usually well innervated the operation of the lenses, screens, and diaphragms is controlled by the nervous system.
- Biological Oceanography