Nuclear and Ion Beam Techniques for Surface and Near-Surface Analysis.
NAVAL RESEARCH LAB WASHINGTON D C
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A survey is made of recent developments in the applications of ion beam techniques to surface analyses. Ion beams are taken to be charged atomic species such as protons, deuterons, helium-3, alpha particles, and others and the energies of interest, usually, but not always, are in the range from one million electron volts MeV upward. The discussion covers not only those techniques which are presently ready for application but also those which are still being investigated and developed in the laboratory. The objective of the discussion is to give the reader an overview of the present state of the art. Techniques are categorized according to whether they are based on charged particle activation analysis or on prompt radiation analysis. The discussion emphasizes prompt radiation analysis since this area is in general newer and less well known than is charged particle activation analysis. Sub-categories discussed under prompt radiation analysis include a high-energy backscattering, b channeling, c high-energy forward scattering, d low-energy backscattering, e heavy-ion-induced x rays, f nuclear reactions, and g nuclear resonance reactions. Numerous examples of actual analyses are discussed for each category. A comprehensive list of references, totaling 108 in number, is given. Author
- Physical Chemistry