Radar Cross-Section Measurements of Snow and Ice
COLD REGIONS RESEARCH AND ENGINEERING LAB HANOVER NH
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The radar backscatter from undisturbed snow surfaces was measured at 10 GHz, 35 GHz and 95 GHz and at grazing angles of 1 to 0.4 degrees. For horizontally polarized radiation the ground clutter per unit area m squared at 10 GHz from a flat snow terrain decreased from -50 db at 1 degree to -70 db at 0.4 degrees. The return was approximately 10 db lower for vertically polarized radiation. The ground clutter depended on the free water content of the snow. The radar cross section of ice blocks placed on the snow surface was roughly proportional to the square of the area of the ice blocks facing the radar at 10 and 35 GHz and was about 20 dbsm below the return expected for a perfectly reflecting plane surface. At 95 GHz the ice blocks became diffuse reflectors.
- Snow, Ice and Permafrost
- Active and Passive Radar Detection and Equipment