Expectancy for Internal Versus External Control of Reinforcement Among Students in Five Countries.
MARYLAND UNIV COLLEGE PARK DEPT OF PSYCHOLOGY
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The Internal-External Scale devised by Rotter was administered to over 1500 students in the United States, New Zealand, Australia, Japan, and Sweden. The Swedish and Japanese students revealed the highest degree of belief in external control of their lives, and both scored significantly higher than the Americans, New Zealanders, and Australians, among whom 1-E scores differed only slightly. In each country, women scored significantly higher on the 1-E Scale than men. The cross-national differences are interpreted in terms of both social values and political structure, whereas the sex differences are seen as reflecting the perception by women of a relative lack of control over their own fates in male-dominated societies. Author