Sound Disperison and Phase Fluctuations in the Upper Ocean.
NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CALIF
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In-Situ measurements of the speed of sound in the upper ocean have revealed the existence of significant dispersion and large fluctuations over the frequency range 25-80 kHz. The near-surface values of c ranges from 6 Msec to -3 Msec relative to the bubble-free value, with a maximum estimated error of 0.5 Msec. It was possible to identify bubbles of surface radius centered around 54 microns down to 4.3 meter depth as well as a population centered around 124 microns at 4.3 M found at all depths. The speed fluctuation showed near-Gaussian probability density functions except at the disperison center frequencies. The standard deviation of the speed varied from 0.27 Msec for 58.0 kHz to 0.52 Msec at 69.6 kHz. Author