Human Factors Considerations of Undergrounds in Insurgencies. Volume 2
AMERICAN UNIV WASHINGTON DC CENTER FOR RESEARCH IN SOCIAL SYSTEMS
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Few insurgencies have been won or lost by large, decisive military battles. More commonly, insurgencies are won by a combination of military and political means. Much of the political leverage involved in such settlements is derived from effective psychological operations, which have structured the environment necessary for a political solution. One objective of psychological operations is to create social disorganization and conditions of uncertainty. The resultant unrest and confusion are used as a cover to carry out underground operations. A characteristic of this kind of social confusion is a condition of general apathy among a large segment of the populace and an unwillingness to help either side. This indifference plays into the hands of the underground apathetic people do not cooperate by supporting government programs and they seldom volunteer the intelligence information necessary for detecting underground elements and operations. A second objective of psychological operations is the creation of doubt and suspicion of government and government officials. This focuses attention and grievances on the ineffectiveness of government. A third and crucial objective of psychological operations is to crystallize attitudes and organize dissident elements to resist government action and policies.
- Unconventional Warfare
- Human Factors Engineering and Man Machine Systems