The Fauna of Deep-Water Trenches and Its Biogenetic Formation,
NAVAL SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL INFORMATION CENTRE ORPINGTON (ENGLAND)
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The study of the ground fauna of deep-water trenches ultra-abyssal zone with depths greater than 6 km. was started only about 20 years ago. Until then collections were conducted in 23 of all known trenches, but, from many, only rare catches were received. The fauna of the ultra-abyssal zone is well isolated from the abyssal fauna of the bed of the ocean 6 of the common types. Broadly it is characterized by a high endemicity on the species level 68 endemic types. The endemic genera amount to 10. Only two families are known, which are not met with in shallower depths. The fauna at the upper levels depths of 6-7 km has a transitional character between the abyssal and the ultra-abyssal. As the depth increases in the limits of the ultra-abyssal zone, so the individuality of its fauna grows. Up to now, no information has been available concerning the fauna of the trenches of South Sandwich and Cayman Bartlett in the Atlantic Ocean. The faunas of a series of trenches of the tropical zone in the western part of the Pacific Ocean have been studied very little Ryuku, Philippine, Volcano, Marianas, New Hebrides or not at all Yap, Palau, San Cristobal. A study of the inhabitants of all the above trenches is needed, not only to elucidate the history and morphological development of these fauna, but also to determine the relative age of these trenches.
- Biological Oceanography