Leader Orientation, Leader Behavior, Group Effectiveness, and Situation Favorability: An Extension of the Contingency Model.
Technical rept. 1 Oct 70-1 Oct 71,
MICHIGAN UNIV ANN ARBOR INST FOR SOCIAL RESEARCH
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Data collected using the Survey of Organizations and the Survey of Management Beliefs questionnaires from members and supervisors of 119 work groups in the maintenance and production departments of a metal fabricating plant were analyzed in terms of three specific predictions based on the Contingency Model proposed by Fiedler 1964 1970. Leader forced preference interpersonal relations orientation scores were correlated with leader behavior measures and work group effectiveness scores in three levels of situational favorability. The results generally support the contingency model with some modifications. The findings suggest that in a very unfavorable situation, supervisors will direct most of their behavior toward the achievement of their primary goals, while in a very favorable situation, they will concentrate less on the achievement of primary goals and more on the achievement of secondary goals. As a result, if you ask a supervisor how leaders should behave, he will accurately describe the way he will behave in an unfavorable situation, but his description will be increasingly less accurate as the situation becomes more favorable. The data also suggest that groups supervised by task-oriented leaders will be more effective in situations of either high or low favorability, and that groups supervised by interpersonal relations-oriented leaders will be more effective in situations of intermediate favorability. Author