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Refraction and Focusing of Underwater Shock Waves: Bibliography of Technical Reports, Memoranda and Papers Published in Scientific Journals

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Final technical rept.

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In media for which the speed of sound is position dependent, propagating sound will be refracted and, in some cases, focused. In the focusing regions, usually referred to as caustics or convergence zones, significant amplification of the pressure levels above those predicted by spherical spreading has been observed for continuous waves as well as explosive pulses. In addition, the waveforms of explosive pulses undergo drastic distortion. In order to obtain a theoretical understanding of the behavior of shockwaves at caustics, an asymptotic theory of the refraction and focusing of sound originating from a point source in a stratified medium has been developed. The titles and abstracts of the technical reports, informal memoranda, and journal publications generated in the course of this development are listed. Topics covered in these reports include the formulation of the Caustic Boundary Layer CBL theory of sound focusing, the phase shifts of harmonic waves at caustics, a comparison of the CBL theorys predictions with experiment, the development of higher order correction terms in the CBL theory and their application as criteria for the validity of the theory, the theory of lateral precursor waves associated with the CBL theory and ray theory and the extension of ray acoustics into caustic-related shadow zones. In addition, abstracts are given of two earlier reports concerned with the interaction of shockwaves with various types of boundaries.

Subject Categories:

  • Explosions
  • Acoustics

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