Measuring Soil Properties in Vehicle Mobility Research. Report 4. Relative Density and Cone Penetration Resistance
ARMY ENGINEER WATERWAYS EXPERIMENT STATION VICKSBURG MS
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Relations between cone penetration resistance and relative density were developed by means of statistical analysis correlation calculation for three cohesionless soils Yuma sand, mortar sand, and Bayou Pierre sand. These relations were evaluated from direct measurements of relative density and results of tests with the U. S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station WES standard cone penetrometer. Most of the data for Yuma and mortar sands had already been obtained as part of the soil-tire performance tests previously conducted at the WES. However, several special laboratory tests in molds with both sands were conducted to control and extend the existing range of data. The results in Bayou Pierre sand were obtained from laboratory tests conducted especially for this study. The relations established between relative density and cone penetration resistance and its gradient, respectively, averaged over the 0- to 15-cm depth, depend on the grain size and compactibility of the soil. The cone penetration resistance increases with increasing soil mean grain diameter and decreasing compactibility. The critical depth of penetration affects the results within the considered depth range only in loose and very loose sands. A qualitative theoretical explanation of what occurs during the penetration of a cone into a cohesionless medium is given.
- Soil Mechanics