Annual Fluctuations of Hydrological Characteristics of the Baltic, Barents and Caspian Seas and the Solar Activity (Mnogoletnie Kolebaniya Gidrologicheskikh Kharacteristic Baltiiskogo, Barentseva i Kaspiiskogo Morei i Solnechaya Aktivnost)
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The interrelation between the secular fluctuations of solar activity and the hydrological characteristics of the Baltic, Barents and Caspian Seas is investigated. It is found that the solar activity has not a direct effect on the seas but that it acts through the atmospheric circulation over the Atlantic- Eurasian sector of the Northern Hemisphere - namely, through the predominance of either the western cyclonic or eastern anticyclonic type of circulation in a given period of time. Observational data disclose that the hydrological characteristics affected most by the type of atmospheric circulation determined by solar activity are changes of salinity for the Baltic Sea, of iciness for the Barents Sea and water level for the Caspian Sea. The interrelation among the phenomena is further defined by superimposed integral curves characterizing the variation of solar activity with time, the recurrence of atmospheric circulation types, and variations of salinity in the Baltic Sea, iciness in the Barents Sea and water level in the Caspian Sea.
- Physical and Dynamic Oceanography
- Hydrology, Limnology and Potamology