Study of Equipment and Methods for Removing or Dispersing Oil from Open Waters
BATTELLE MEMORIAL INST RICHLAND WA PACIFIC NORTHWEST LABS
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A cost effectiveness analysis was performed for equipment, materials and techniques applicable to the removal or dispersal of spilled oil from U.S. Navy AO and AOG vessels on open waters. Effectiveness parameters included oil product types JP-5, Distillate Fuel, Navy Special and Bunker C, expected spill locations 3 and 12 miles from shore and size of expected spill 10 tons, 1000 tons and 25,000 tons. Criteria for evaluation of systems under the above parameter situations, formulated for presently available equipment and materials, include completeness of oil removal rate of removal hazard and pollution use in limited access areas sensitivity to expected environmental factors sensitivity to temperature extremes toxicity to marine life and system availability. Cost effectiveness was determined using the 3 spill sizes and checked for spill frequency sensitivity. The three most cost effective systems for the spectrum of spill sizes were found to be burning of the oil, dispersing the spilled oil and mechanical skimming. Considering system applicability to various products and the practical requirements of rate of removal for massive spills, the most practical universal system with a favorable cost effectiveness ratio was found to be dispersing. This is followed by dispersing plus a containment boom.
- Water Pollution and Control