FEASIBILITY STUDY OF THE LITHIUM/C(x)F PRIMARY CELL.
Technical rept. Oct 68-May 70,
ARMY ELECTRONICS COMMAND FORT MONMOUTH N J
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A graphite-fluorine intercalation compound, CxF, has been proposed as a cathode material for an organic electrolyte primary cell to achieve, simultaneously, high energy density during operation and long shelf-life during storage in the activated state. This investigation was carried out to determine if the concept of a lithiumCxF-cell is feasible by studying the chemical and electrochemical reactions of CxF in various organic electrolyte solutions. CxF was synthesized by fluorination of graphite and the crude compound treated in several different ways to remove volatile or soluble impurities. Samples of CxF were brought into equilibrium with the electrolytes and the amounts of H, Fe3 and F- generated by non-electrochemical processes analytically determined. Porous CxF electrodes were prepared. The open circuit potentials, steady-state potentials, operating voltages, currents, and ampere-hours of CxF-cathodes and LiCxF-cells were measured during discharge under galvanostatic and potentiostatic conditions. Reaction products were qualitatively determined in cathode mixes by X-ray diffraction analysis. The capacity, cell voltage, energy density, rate capability, shelf life and cost of LiCxF-cells have been compared with those of other lithium systems in order to arrive at a meaningful conclusion about the feasibility of the LiCxF-primary cell. A manufacturing process for CxF was outlined and the cost of this compound estimated. Author
- Electrochemical Energy Storage