A COGNITIVE INTERPRETATION OF NEGATIVE TRANSFER AND FORGETTING OF PAIRED ASSOCIATES.
MICHIGAN UNIV ANN ARBOR HUMAN PERFORMANCE CENTER
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Measurements of difficulty in two stages of paired-associate memorizing are obtained for four paradigms of negative transfer. Data are presented from a series of different retention tests given after interpolated learning in the four paradigms. Evidence is presented indicating that recall of two responses paired with the same stimulus is independent. An interpretation of the results is given, based on two hypothetical processes. One process in negative transfer is interference with the storage of new items, produced by carryover of the encodings of stimuli and responses from earlier pairings. The other process in transfer, and the main process in forgetting, is interference with the retrieval process, produced mainly by the inclusion of the same stimuli in two retrieval systems. Author