F-LAYER REFLECTIONS AND ION EFFECTS IN THE PROPAGATION OF TERRESTRIAL ELF WAVES.
SYLVANIA ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS-EAST WALTHAM MASS APPLIED RESEARCH LAB
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During nighttime waves penetrate above the D-layer and propagation parameters of the earth-to-ionosphere wave guide are dependent on the detailed ionospheric structure below the F-layer. The propagation characteristics are dependent on the altitude of the F-layer, electron density below this layer, the magnitude of the radial static magnetic field component, and also on ions that tend to increase the absorption of the penetrating magneto-ionic mode. The individual models advanced for the ionosphere are not representative of long distance or global wave propagation but the average of the propagation parameters derived for a number of propagation geometries is comparable to the parameters deduced from an isotropic ionosphere model, where waves are confined to altitudes below 100 km. Author
- Atmospheric Physics
- Radio Communications