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PROPERTIES OF HIGH-LATITUDE IONOSPHERIC DUCTS DEDUCED FROM ALOUETTE II TWO-HOP ECHOES,
COMMUNICATIONS RESEARCH CENTRE OTTAWA (ONTARIO)
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Radio waves transmitted by the Alouette satellite can, after being reflected in the ionosphere, return to the satellite and be scattered from the satellite antennas. Some of the scattered energy will be reflected again in the ionosphere and return to the satellite, and may then be detected. From the strength of such two-hop signals, it is deduced that they propagate in field-aligned cylindrical ducts or tubes. The guiding of waves by these field-aligned tubes is considerably less efficient for the ordinary wave O wave than for the extraordinary wave X wave. Author
APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE