GROUP NORMS AND DISSONANCE REDUCTION IN BELIEF, BEHAVIOR, AND JUDGMENT
CALIFORNIA UNIV LOS ANGELES DEPT OF PSYCHOLOGY
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Forty-four female subjects met in groups of four, each in a separate booth, and were asked to report whether or not they received ESP images which were presumably projected by a sender in another room. Half the Ss, in a control condition, were unaware of the responses of others. For the others, in the experimental condition, a device similar to that utilized by Deutsch and Gerard gave each subject the impression that the other three Ss had received images on 23 of 30 trials. It was found that, particularly, in the control condition, reported reception of ESP images was a function of ones initial belief in ESP. The experimental situation was analyzed in terms of a theory of dissonance reduction.