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ON THE BIOLOGY OF SOME SPECIES OF THE GENUS HAEMAPHYSALIS,
NAVAL MEDICAL RESEARCH UNIT NO 3 CAIRO (EGYPT) DEPT OF MEDICAL ZOOLOGY
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In H. warburtoni, development is extended for a long period, apparently exceeding one year. All H. warburtoni stages are able to endure low temperatures for long periods. Engorged larvae survived for 9 months in temperature decreased to 5-10C, engorged nymphs for 183 days, hungry larvae and nymphs over a year, and hungry adults about 2 years, which is not the time limit. This phenomenon is related to the association of this tick species with mountaineous areas with relatively severe climate. H. punctata, H. sulcata, and H. otophila are characterized by shorter developmental periods and only H. punctata has tendency for slight prolongation of some developmental stages. H. warburtoni larvae attached in mass to animals 1-12 to 2 months after hatching larvae of other species readily fed 5 to 7 days after emergence. Rabbits and hedgehogs proved to be the most suitable animals for mass feeding of all tested Haemaphysalis species. H. sulcata larvae and nymphs successfully sucked blood on hedgehog, mice, domestic cock, and reptiles lizards, sandsnake, and a tortoise as well as on rabbit. Engorged H. otophila larvae and nymphs are very susceptible to humidity and rapidly die in a humidity deficiency. All Haemaphysalis species investigated by us proceed by 3-host development, with the exception of H. sulcata which, along with 3-host cycle, occasionally proceeded by 2-host type of development. Author
APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE