SIMULATED OCCUPANCY OF SHELTERS
STANFORD RESEARCH INST MENLO PARK CA
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The report reviews and evaluates work performed by several contractors participating in the OCD fallout shelter ventilation program, including field ventilation tests using simulated occupants and the development of analytical models for prediction of ventilation requirements. A series of meaningful experiments by the several contractors provided data in support of the analytical model. Emphasis is placed on weather criteria, which play an important part in determining required shelter ventilation rates. The adequacy factor AF method is found to be the most satisfactory criterion to date, by virtue of its basis upon simultaneous dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperatures available from the U.S. weather bureau. Curves of adequacy factor as a function of ventilation rate were developed for 91 cities in the U.S., and shelter ventilation requirement maps showing isoventilation contour lines across the U. S. were prepared from the AF curves. The data are based on an adiabatic model, i.e., the shelter load is assumed to be entirely removed by the ventilating air. The ventilation rate required is found to be greatly influenced by selection of the shelter effective temperatureadequacy factor criterion SETAF criterion. The required ventilation rate based on the adiabatic wall shelter model is found to produce realistic estimates under summer conditions for above-ground shelters. For below-ground or partially below-grade shelters, the ventilation rate required can be reduced if the surrounding soil is substantially below the ambient dry-bulb temperature.
- Air Conditioning, Heating, Lighting and Ventilating
- Structural Engineering and Building Technology