Two Simulation Techniques for Fallout Shelter Research: Their Properties and an Application to Evaluating Shelter Management Guidance
AMERICAN INSTITUTES FOR RESEARCH PITTSBURGH PA PITTSBURGH United States
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Two methods for simulating in subjects the survival set to be expected in shelters were developed, and their effectiveness was tested. Second, the effectiveness of two types of shelter management guidance in small shelters with emergent management were evaluated. The two survival set simulation techniques developed were environmental threat and internal stress. Under environmental threat, subjects were confined in an air-filled tank, submerged 20 feet in water. Here the threat of the surrounding water substituted for the threat of radiation. Internal stress was conducted in normal room configuration. Here, threat of pay reduction for inadequate performance of shelter functions served as a substitute motivation for threat of death or injury. The two techniques produced differing kinds of realism. While internal stress subjects demonstrated great vigor and initiative in performing survival functions, environmental threat subjects exhibited comparatively high tension levels and attentiveness to guidance. The advantages of each technique are discussed, and suggestions for other applications are made. The two types of guidance compared were an extensive, 200-page handbook full guidance and a large, folded single sheet which tersely outlined essential management procedures abbreviated guidance. The latter was based on the larger document. There was a generally unanimous tendency to show that the abbreviated guidance was superior across all variables. It was pointed out that these results apply only to small shelters under emergent management.