THUNDERSTORM PENETRATIONS OF THE TROPOPAUSE, A CLIMATOLOGY AND A METHOD OF ESTIMATION
Technical Report,01 Aug 1965,31 Jul 1967
ATMOSPHERIC RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CORP KANSAS CITY MO KANSAS CITY United States
Pagination or Media Count:
Data sources for radar measurement of thunderstorm penetrations of the tropopause level outside the United States are listed, and a climatology for North America is presented. Important features are a double maximum over central and southern United States, a decrease in penetrations around the great lakes, and a few penetrations north of 50 N. Although few penetrations were found outside North America, northeastern China is listed as the next most likely area for large numbers of penetrations. Two studies suggest that the sole use of low level moisture or the maximum amount of energy available to a storm will not be successful in estimating penetration amounts. An equation of the form Y-Ae to the power bX was found to fit the cumulative distribution of penetrations at ten United States stations. A method of estimating the cumulative frequency distribution of penetrations based on a determination of the highest penetration and the above equation gave good results. A computer program is included which will determine the highest penetration likely from a sounding.