EFFECTS OF RACE OF TESTER, APPROVAL-DISAPPROVAL AND NEED ON NEGRO CHILDREN'S LEARNING.
MICHIGAN UNIV ANN ARBOR
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It was found that northern urban Negro boys of grade school age performed better on a verbal learning task with Negro examiners than with white examiners, and when given approval rather than disapproval. In addition, the strength of the childs need for approval influenced his reactions to the first two variables in combination. The experiment indicates that in order to understand the effects of positive and negative social reinforcement on verbal learning in Negro pupils it is necessary to take into account the need state of the individual child and the racial identity of the adult dispenser of reinforcement. Author
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