INTEGRATED SILICON DEVICE TECHNOLOGY. VOLUME XV. RELIABILITY.
Technical documentary rept.,
RESEARCH TRIANGLE INST DURHAM N C
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Although some variations in reported failure rates result from a lack of standard conditions, the variations principally result from a difference in process control among manufacturers. Most failures result from surface-related failure mechanisms and interactions between the interconnection system materials. Of several interconnection systems that are in use, gold wire ball bonded to aluminum metallization is the most frequently used and is considered the most reliable at temperatures below 125C. Two promising alternatives are the aluminum metallization-aluminum wire system and the molybdenum-gold metallization-gold wire system. Either of these could eventually prove to be the more reliable. Temperature accelerates most failure mechanisms and failure rates are usually stated at specific temperatures. Reverse biased junctions accelerate surface mechanisms and increased current accelerates bulk failure mechanisms. It is generally agreed that failure rates increase by approximately a factor of 10 between 25 and 125C. Acceleration factors have not been estimated for stresses other than temperature. Screening techniques contribute significantly to the reliability of integrated circuits by eliminating potential failures from actual use. Drop outs from burn-in screening tests run several percent of a starting lot.
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