THEORIES OF BAT ECHOLOCATION.
PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIV UNIVERSITY PARK ORDNANCE RESEARCH LAB
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The aspects of bat performance most significant to the theories of echo location may be considered as range measurement, range resolution, target direction, resistance to jamming and the use of various types of ultrasonic pulses and repetition rates. The radar analogy theory first suggested by Hartridge and later expanded by Strother offers an heuristic explanation for most of the above. It explains range measurement, range resolution and resistance to jamming. The beat frequency theories attempt to explain the determination of range and direction, but not resolution, resistance to jamming or the changes in the pulse rates. Their major difficulty is that they may be applied only where overlap of pulse and echo is known to occur. The time difference tone theory explains only range measurements and considers the change in pulse rate and length as yielding more information on target range. Range resolution is not considered. The beat frequency and time difference tone theories possess two major difficulties. The first is that they depend upon the echo being audible to the bat. The second is that all experiments upon which these theories depend were conducted with human subjects. Author
- Anatomy and Physiology