DETERMINATIONS OF DIRECT AND INVERSE AZIMUTHS, ZENITH DISTANCE, HOUR ANGLE, DECLINATION AND DISTANCE BETWEEN TWO POINTS ON NORMAL SECTIONS.
ARMY ENGINEER GEODESY INTELLIGENCE AND MAPPING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT AGENCY FORT BELVOIR VA
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This research note describes the mathematical formulations developed to provide accurate determinations of the direct and inverse azimuths, zenith distance, declination, hour angle, and chord distance between two points on normal sections. The solution is valid for any distance and for any height of the stations above the ellipsoid of reference. The straight line between two points as they are on the physical surface of the earth is considered as a base line, the orientation of which in a reference system similar to that used to define the stars positions, plays an important role in geodesy in the use of artificial earth satellites, the moon, and minor planets, as is to be shown in future reports.